The various keys used for trumpets can be confusing at first.
But there are good reasons why trumpets are built in various keys rather than just having all trumpets tuned in C or B flat.
Let’s look at the facts.
Here’s Why Trumpets Come In Different Keys
Trumpets are made in different keys in order to compensate for the fairly short tonal range of trumpets. Composers often use a larger register of tones than what most trumpeters can play and they get more range by adding the Eb and B flat piccolo trumpet into the orchestral mix.
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A good intermediate trumpeter will be most comfortable playing within the range of approximately two octaves, and that’s not much to work with for music composers.
An Eb trumpet is tuned exactly a fourth (5 semitones) above a regular B flat trumpet and that gives the player more upper range.
The C trumpet was mainly introduced to make it easier for trumpeters to play alongside other instruments using the standard C tuning.
By using a C trumpet you don’t need to transpose the music to play the same tones as a piano (we’ll get back to that!)
What Key Is a Standard Trumpet?
The standard key for trumpets is B flat (Bb). Most trumpeters will start out on a B flat trumpet and that’s also where you find the iconic trumpet sound. The Bb trumpet is also the most-sold trumpet.
Most trumpets can be adjusted down to the A key by pulling the adjustable tuning slide out as far as possible. By using this little trick you can often make it a lot easier to transpose a note sheet into a key that’s easier to read.
This means, that standard trumpets will be able to play in the B flat key as well as the A key.
Most trumpet brands produce several Bb trumpet models and a few models that are in the C and Eb key, as we will look at below.
What Key is a Piccolo Trumpet?
The piccolo trumpet is a small trumpet that typically is built in the B flat or A key. It will be playing around an octave above a standard B flat trumpet. The piccolo trumpet is mainly used in orchestras and marching bands.
Piccolo trumpets are smaller than regular trumpets as they require less pipe length for the high B flat key. Sometimes they have four valves to make it easier (possible) for the player to play the lower notes.
Just like a regular trumpet, you can pull out the main leadpipe to tune it down the the key of A. This can make it easier to play sharp-heavy songs.
The total length of the pipes is smaller than what you see on standard trumpets which makes the key and pitch higher.
What Key is a Flugelhorn?
Flugelhorns are almost always tuned in B flat like regular trumpets. They have a larger bell and fewer bends on the pipes. This means they can use the same note sheets as regular trumpets.
The flugelhorn is famous for it’s darker tone and it sounds more like a horn than a trumpet.
Many trumpeters have a flugelhorn as well to be able to create a richer and deeper sound for variation.
What Does B Flat Mean in Trumpets?
B flat relates to the key tuning of the instrument when no keys are pressed down. When you play the C note on a Bb trumpet it will sound like the B note on a piano or a regular guitar.
Most instruments are tuned in the C key and that means that you will be playing a major second below a C instrument.
Alternatively, you will need to transpose the tones a major second up (two semitones) in order to play along with a piano unless there’s a separate sheet made for a Bb instrument.
Main Advantages of Using a Bb Trumpet
A major part of classical trumpet music is written in B flat. That’s probably the main reason most trumpeters choose the B flat trumpet.
However, it’s also a bit easier to get the pitch right across the full register on a B flat trumpet.
The B flat trumpet is a bit larger than trumpets in different keys. If you fold out the pipes, you can see that a trumpet in the B flat key require more pipe than a C trumpet. There’s simply more length of pipe built into the instrument and you have more control. Therefore its easier to control the sound with your lips.
The smaller the brass instrument, the more practice it takes to hit the correct note every time.
The B flat trumpet is well suited for brass band music and it’s the signature sound you expect from a trumpet.
The Reason Most Trumpets Are In the Bb Key
Most trumpets are tuned in B flat because exactly this tuning works with the optimal length of pipe in order to produce the unique trumpet timbre. Trumpets tuned in most other keys require less pipe and will produce a slightly brighter tone.
Trumpets in the B flat key sound like you expect a trumpet to play.
The rest of the trumpets have a brighter sound and they are a bit harder to control in order to shift quickly and precisely between the tones.
Also, the Bb key (also known as B flat) is often the standard tuning for music written for brass bands, as we will look at below.
What Key Is Most Trumpet Music Written in
Historically, music for brass bands and marching bands are in the Bb key. This is because the Bb key sounds really good for brass instruments.
Historically, there were only trumpets without valves. This meant that these instruments could only play the notes in the harmonic series (C, G, C, E, G and so forth). This would limit horns and trumpets to only play very simple melodies, especially for the lower register.
After the valve system was introduced in the beginning of the 19th century it became possible to play the trumpet in any key.
Which Key Should I Choose For My Trumpet?
While most people use trumpets in B flat and C, there are situations where an Eb or an F trumpet can come in handy.
Let’s dive into when you should choose the more uncommon trumpets.
Why do People Use C Trumpets?
C trumpets are often used in classical orchestras where you find lots of string instruments. The C trumpet has a brighter tone and it fits well with the string instruments. Also, it’s easier to play sharp-heavy music on C trumpets due to the finger positions.
Also, when you play a C trumpet you can use the same note sheet as a piano which is really helpful in many situations.
When you play pop music or jazz music together with instruments that are not tuned in B flat it makes a lot of sense to choose a trumpet in the C key.
Why Do People Use F Trumpets?
Very few professional and intermediate trumpeters use F trumpets. They don’t have the classic trumpet sound as they are pitched very differently. They are constructed to help the player reach really high-pitched notes.
We also find a few brands that produce a trumpet that’s tuned in the low F key (below the B flat trumpet). These are rarely used as they sound much more like horns.
The Eb trumpet and Eb cornets are more popular in orchestras for the more high-pitched trumpet parts.
Why Do People Use Eb Trumpets
The Es trumpets (and Eb cornets) are higher pitched than regular trumpets, and they are used in music composed especially for the high register. It’s much easier to hit the high notes on an Eb trumpet than on a regular B flat or C trumpet.
The reason it’s easier to hit the high notes on an Eb trumpet has to do with the construction and the mouthpiece. The horn itself is smaller and the mouthpiece has a smaller rim and cup size as well.
When you play the same tone on an Eb trumpet and a Bb trumpet you will have a brighter timbre on the Eb cornet.
What Key Is My Trumpet In?
Playing alongside a piano is the easiest way to determine which key a trumpet is tuned in. When playing a C on the trumpet, the piano will tell which key the instrument is tuned in. If the tones matches a B flat on the piano, the trumpet will be a B flat trumpet.
You cannot tell what key a trumpet is made in from looking at it.
However, smaller trumpets are typically tuned in Eb or the B flat that sits an octave above a regular trumpet.
What Other Instruments Are in the Key of B Flat?
Here is a list of common instruments tuned in B flat:
- Bb Clarinets
- Tenor Saxophones
- Soprano Saxophones
- Baritone horns
- Euphonium horns
- Trombone horns